The state has governed by the Communist Party of China based in the capital of Beijing. It has over 22 provinces, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, and Chongqing), five autonomous regions and two mostly self-governing special administrative regions (Macau and Hong Kong) and claims independence over Taiwan.
The major urban areas of the country are Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, Chongqing, Shenzhen, Tianjin and Hong Kong. The country has a great power with a major regional power inside Asia, and has been characterizing as a potential superpower.
Covering roughly 9.6 million km2, China is the second biggest country in the world by land and the third or fourth-biggest by aggregate region, contingent upon the system of measurement.
The landscape of China is huge and diverse, going from timberland steppes and the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts in the bone-dry north to semitropical woods in the wetter south.
The Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges isolate China from quite a bit of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and 6th longest on the planet, separately, keep running from the Tibetan Plateau to the thickly populated eastern seaboard.
The coastline of China along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 km long and is bordered by the Yellow, Bohai, East China, and South China oceans.
There are about 292 living languages available in China. The languages most commonly used to the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family, which includes Mandarin that has been using by 70% of the populace and other Chinese assortments: Wu (with Shanghainese), Min (with Hoochew, Hokkien and Teochew), Yue (with Cantonese and Taishanese), Xiang, Gan, and Hakka.
Climate of China
In China, the climate varies radically which influenced by latitude and monsoon activities. The country has variety of temperature with rainfall zones and monsoon areas. In the winter season most areas turn into cold and dry and in summer hot and rainy.
Warm-Temperate Area: The middle and lower areas such as: Shandong, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Yellow River, and Hebei Province are considered as warm-temperature zone.
Subtropical Area: South of isotherm of Qinling Mountain-Huaihe River, east of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are considered as subtropical zone.
Tropical Area: Hainan province, southern Taiwan, Guangdong, and Yunnan Province are considered as tropical zone.
Cold-Temperate Area: Northern part of Heilongjiang Province and Inner Mongolia are considered as cold-temperature zone.
Mid-Temperate Area: Northern Xinjiang, Jilin and most of Heilongjiang, Liaoning, and Inner Mongolia are considered as mid-temperature zone.
Plateau Climate Area: Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is considered as plateau climate zone.
List of Cities in China
There are three levels of cities in China, namely provincial-level cities which formation with municipalities and SARs, prefectural-level cities and the county-level cities, according to the administrative divisions of China (Hong Kong and Macau included). The PRC has a total of 662 cities where municipalities are 4, 2 SARs, prefectural-level cities are 293 (including 15 sub-provincial cities) and county-level cities are 363 (including 10 sub-prefectural cities and 9 XXPC cities) excluding cities in the province of Taiwan. There are following categorizes of cities based on the population of each city of China:
- Super Large-sized Cities: With a population over 2,000,000 persons.
- Extra Large-sized Cities: With a population ranges between 1,000,000-2,000,000 persons.
- Large-sized Cities: With a population ranges between 500,000-1,000,000 persons.
- Medium-sized Cities: With a population ranges between 200,000-500,000 persons.
- Small-sized Cities: With a population ranges between 200,000-500,000 persons.
Languages of China
The languages of China have spoken by China’s 56 recognized ethnic groups. The main language in China divided into seven major groups which known as Hanyu and its study has considered different academic discipline in China. Hanyu or the Han language divided into eight primary dialect groups which vary from each other phonetically and morphologically to such a degree which dialects from various areas can often be mutually unintelligible.
China has currently 297 living languages according to Ethnologue. The languages most commonly used to the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family, which includes Mandarin that has been using by 70% of the populace and other Chinese assortments: Wu (with Shanghainese), Min (with Hoochew, Hokkien and Teochew), Yue (with Cantonese and Taishanese), Xiang, Gan, and Hakka.
The spoken languages of China belong to at least nine families as below:
- The Sino-Tibetan family: There are 19 official ethnicities.
- The Tai–Kadai family: There are 9 official ethnicities.
- The Hmong–Mien family: There are 3 official ethnicities.
- The Austroasiatic family: There are 4 official ethnicities.
- The Turkic family: There are 7 official ethnicities.
- The Mongolic family: There are 6 official ethnicities.
- The Tungusic family: There are 5 official ethnicities.
- The Indo-European family: There are 2 official ethnicities.
- The Austronesian family: There is one official and one unofficial ethnicity.
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